Genome Property Definition Page

Namecellulose biosynthesis
DescriptionCellulose, a homopolymer of glucose featuring uniform beta-1,4 linkages, is synthesized in bacteria by cellulose synthase [1,2]. Bacterial cellulose may have further modifications such as acetylation. The synthase consists of two subunits (or domains in the frequent cases where it is encoded as a single polypeptide), a catalytic domain and regulatory domain which binds the allosteric activator cyclic-di-GMP. The protein is membrane-embedded and probably assembles into multimers such that the individual cellulose strands can self-assemble into multi-strand fibrils. The purpose of the endoglucanase which is always present in the same operon with the synthase is not known. Control of the levels of c-diGMP is via pppGpG cyclases and c-diGMP and pGpG phosphodiesterases. All genomes expressing this system have numerous cyclase and phosphodiesterase domain proteins and multiple regulatory circuits are possible. In E. coli strains, at least three regulatory systems are indicated [3], whose genes typically are not clustered with the biosynthetic genes.
JCVI RoleBiosynthesis and degradation of surface polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides
Parent PropertyGenProp0186: storage and structural polymer biosynthesis
GenProp1048: quorum-sensing, biofilm formation, and developmental systems
Literature References
[ 1 ]Ross P, Mayer R, Benziman M  Cellulose biosynthesis and function in bacteria.  Microbiol Rev. 1991 Mar;55(1):35-58.  PMID 2030672
[ 2 ]Saxena IM, Kudlicka K, Okuda K, Brown RM Jr  Characterization of genes in the cellulose-synthesizing operon (acs operon) of Acetobacter xylinum: implications for cellulose crystallization.  J Bacteriol. 1994 Sep;176(18):5735-52.  PMID 8083166
[ 3 ]Da Re S, Ghigo JM  A CsgD-independent pathway for cellulose production and biofilm formation in Escherichia coli.  J Bacteriol. 2006 Apr;188(8):3073-87.  PMID 16585767
[ 4 ] Solano C, Garcia B, Valle J, Berasain C, Ghigo JM, Gamazo C, Lasa I   Genetic analysis of Salmonella enteritidis biofilm formation: critical role of cellulose.   Mol Microbiol. 2002 Feb;43(3):793-808.  PMID 11929533
Gene Ontology TermGO:0030244: cellulose biosynthetic process (biological_process)

Step NameStep NumRequiredEvidence (Method)Evidence Go Terms
cellulose synthase, catalytic subunit CelACelAYESTIGR03030 (HMM): cellulose synthase catalytic subunit (UDP-forming)GO:0030244: cellulose biosynthetic process
cellulose synthase, regulatory subunit CelBCelBYESPF03170 (HMM): bacterial cellulose synthase subunitGO:0030244: cellulose biosynthetic process
cellulose biosynthesis protein BcsE/YhjSCelBcsENOTIGR03369 (HMM): cellulose biosynthesis protein BcsEGO:0030244: cellulose biosynthetic process
cellulose biosynthesis operon protein BcsF/YhjTCelBcsFNOTIGR03493 (HMM): celllulose biosynthesis operon protein BcsF/YhjTGO:0030244: cellulose biosynthetic process
cellulose biosynthesis protein BcsG/YhjUCelBcsGNOTIGR03368 (HMM): cellulose synthase operon protein YhjUGO:0030244: cellulose biosynthetic process
Cellulose synthase operon protein CCelCYESPF05420 (HMM): cellulose synthase operon protein C C-terminalGO:0030244: cellulose biosynthetic process
cellulose synthase operon protein YhjQCelYhjQNOTIGR03371 (HMM): cellulose synthase operon protein YhjQGO:0030244: cellulose biosynthetic process
clustered endoglucanase (cellulase?)endogluNOPF01270 (HMM-CLUST): glycoside hydrolase, family 8GO:0030244: cellulose biosynthetic process

Parent Properties
GenProp0186storage and structural polymer biosynthesis
GenProp1048quorum-sensing, biofilm formation, and developmental systems

Sibling Properties
GenProp0055polyhydroxyalkanoic acids
GenProp0156cyanophycin-like storage polymers
GenProp0158peptidoglycan(murein) biosynthesis
GenProp0168glycogen system
GenProp0183dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthesis from dTDP-4-dehydro-L-rhamnose
GenProp0297lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis
GenProp0652exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, exosortase A-associated
GenProp0655exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, exosortase B-associated
GenProp0793CMP-N-acetylneuraminate biosynthesis from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine
GenProp0822poly(gamma-glutamic acid) biosynthesis
GenProp0906poly-beta-1,6 N-acetyl-D-glucosamine system, IcaADBC type
GenProp0907poly-beta-1,6 N-acetyl-D-glucosamine system, PgaABCD type
GenProp0757quorum-sensing, autoinducer-2 system
GenProp0849quorum-sensing, Bacillus PlcR-PapR system
GenProp1011quorum-sensing system, cyclic peptide-mediated