Genome Property Definition Page

Nameformaldehyde detoxification, glutathione-dependent
DescriptionFormaldehyde, a toxic metabolite because it reacts easily with protein or DNA, naturally combines with reduced glutathione (GSH) to form S-hydroxymethyl-glutathione. In some species, this reaction is accelerated by the enzyme S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione synthase, also called glutathione-dependent formaldehyde activating enzyme. A class III alcohol dehydrogenase, with activity for a variety of medium chain alcohols (but poor activity for ethanol) can convert S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione to S-formylglutathione, and therefore has been called glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase but is more properly called S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione dehydrogenase for this activity. Finally, S-formylglutathione is converted to glutathione and formate by S-formylglutathione hydrolase, which has a dual role as a broadly specific esterase, called esterase D in animals. While the two essential enzymes of this pathway both have broad specificities, the pairing in operons in so many genomes demonstrates the recurring importance of formaldehyde detoxification.
JCVI RoleDetoxification
Parent PropertyGenProp0303: detoxification

Step NameStep NumRequiredEvidence (Method)Evidence Go Terms
S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione synthaseadd_GSHNOTIGR02820 (HMM): S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione synthase
S-formylglutathione hydrolasecleaveYESTIGR02821 (HMM): S-formylglutathione hydrolase
S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione dehydrogenaseoxidizeYESTIGR02818 (HMM): S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione dehydrogenase/class III alcohol dehydrogenase

Parent Properties

Sibling Properties
GenProp0151resistance to mercury
GenProp0213Resistance to Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
GenProp0474arsenical resistance system
GenProp0488superoxide dismutase, nickel-type
GenProp0673ribulose monophosphate pathway
GenProp0676alkylhydroperoxide reductase AhpCF (peroxiredoxin)
GenProp0744glyoxalase pathway, glutathione dependent