Genome Property Definition Page

DescriptionIn methanogens, methylamine methyltransferases have an in-frame TAG codon that is translated with a lysine amide-linked to (4R,5R)-4-substituted-pyrroline-5-carboxylate. This residue is called pyrrolysine, and is considered the 22nd amino acid, where selenocysteine is the 21st. Pyrrrolysine occurs also in Desulfitobacterium hafniense and related species; proteins in which pyrrolysine occurs are not necessarily homologous to each other. A three-gene cassette, pylBCD, produces the pyrrolysine prior to its attachment to its cognate tRNA.
Parent PropertyGenProp0197: protein biosynthesis
Literature References
[ 1 ]Polycarpo C, Ambrogelly A, Berube A, Winbush SM, McCloskey JA, Crain PF, Wood JL, Soll D  An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that specifically activates pyrrolysine.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004 Aug 24;101(34):12450-4. Epub 2004 Aug 16.  PMID 15314242
[ 2 ]Longstaff DG, Larue RC, Faust JE, Mahapatra A, Zhang L, Green-Church KB, Krzycki JA  A natural genetic code expansion cassette enables transmissible biosynthesis and genetic encoding of pyrrolysine.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jan 16;104(3):1021-6.  PMID 17204561

Step NameStep NumRequiredEvidence (Method)Evidence Go Terms
exampleYESpyrrolysine-containing (com_name)
pyrrolysine biosynthesis radical SAM proteinpylBYESTIGR03910 (HMM): pyrrolysine biosynthesis radical SAM protein
pyrrolysine biosynthesis protein PylCpylCYESTIGR03909 (HMM): pyrrolysine biosynthesis protein PylC
pyrrolysine biosynthesis protein PylDpylDYESTIGR03911 (HMM): pyrrolysine biosynthesis protein PylD
pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase, C-terminal regionpylScYESTIGR02367 (HMM): pyrrolysine--tRNA ligase, C-terminal region
pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase, N-terminal regionpylSnYESTIGR03912 (HMM): pyrrolysine--tRNA ligase, N-terminal region
pyrrolysine tRNApylTYEStRNA-PyL (RNA)

Parent Properties
GenProp0197protein biosynthesis

Sibling Properties
GenProp0016selenocysteine system
GenProp0132transcription termination - antitermination Nus factors
GenProp0148release factor 2 programmed frameshift
GenProp0174ribosome, bacterial, large subunit
GenProp0175ribosome, bacterial, small subunit
GenProp0188GatABC aspartyl/glutamyl-tRNA(Asn/Gln) amidotransferase complex
GenProp0189tRNA-Gln direct aminoacylation
GenProp0211tmRNA trans-translation system
GenProp0258tRNA aminoacylation
GenProp0259tRNA-Asn direct aminoacylation
GenProp0304cysteine biosynthesis, tRNA-dependent
GenProp0634Sigma-54 (RpoN) systems
GenProp0692selenouridine-containing tRNA
GenProp0704tRNA U34 carboxymethylaminomethyl modification
GenProp0740translation initiation, bacterial
GenProp0741translation elongation, bacterial
GenProp0746translation termination, bacterial
GenProp0812rho-dependent termination