Genome Property Definition Page

Nameleucine biosynthesis from pyruvate and acetyl-CoA
DescriptionThe branched amino acid leucine is biosynthesized from the central intermediary metabolites pyruvate and acetyl-CoA via a seven step pathway. Four of these steps are shared with the valine and isoleucine pathways, although specialized versions of these enzymes may exist in certain species which have a narrowed substrate range or amino acid-specific regulatory mechanisms. The product of the third step in this pathway, 2-oxoisovalerate is a branchpoint metabolite required for the biosynthesis of Coenzyme A, branched-chain fatty acids and valine. Similarly, the product of the first step, (S)-2-acetolactate is common to the pathway to (R,R)-2,3-butanediol in the mixed-acid fermentation of pyruvate. The first step of the pathway, acetolactate synthase, requires thiamine pyrophosphate and two molecules of pyruvate, one of which is decarboxylated to the acetoacetate adduct, 2-(alpha-hydroxyethyl)-ThPP. The acetyl-CoA required for the fourth step, 2-isopropylmalate synthase, may also derive from this ThPP adduct by oxidation.
JCVI RolePyruvate family
Parent PropertyGenProp0126: amino acid biosynthesis
Web ReferencesKEGG: Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
Gene Ontology TermGO:0009098: leucine biosynthetic process (biological_process)

Step NameStep NumRequiredEvidence (Method)Evidence Go Terms
acetohydroxyacid synthase, large subunitLeu_1aYESTIGR00118 (HMM): acetolactate synthase, large subunit, biosynthetic typeGO:0009098: leucine biosynthetic process
acetohydroxyacid synthase, small subunitLeu_1bNOTIGR00119 (HMM): acetolactate synthase, small subunitGO:0009098: leucine biosynthetic process
ketol-acid reductoisomeraseLeu_2YESTIGR00465 (HMM): ketol-acid reductoisomeraseGO:0009098: leucine biosynthetic process
dihydroxy-acid dehydrataseLeu_3YESTIGR00110 (HMM): dihydroxy-acid dehydrataseGO:0009098: leucine biosynthetic process
2-isopropylmalate synthaseLeu_4YESTIGR00973 (HMM): 2-isopropylmalate synthase
TIGR00970 (HMM): 2-isopropylmalate synthase
TIGR02090 (HMM): isopropylmalate/citramalate/homocitrate synthases
GO:0009098: leucine biosynthetic process
GO:0009098: leucine biosynthetic process
3-isopropylmalate dehydratase, large subunitLeu_5aYESTIGR00170 (HMM): 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase, large subunit
TIGR02083 (HMM): 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase, large subunit
TIGR02086 (HMM): 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase, large subunit
GO:0009098: leucine biosynthetic process
GO:0009098: leucine biosynthetic process
3-isopropylmalate dehydratase, small subunitLeu_5bYESTIGR00171 (HMM): 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase, small subunit
TIGR02084 (HMM): 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase, small subunit
TIGR02087 (HMM): 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase, small subunit
GO:0009098: leucine biosynthetic process
GO:0009098: leucine biosynthetic process
3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenaseLeu_6YESTIGR00169 (HMM): 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase
TIGR02088 (HMM): isopropylmalate/isohomocitrate dehydrogenases
GO:0009098: leucine biosynthetic process
branched-chain amino acid aminotransferaseLeu_7NOTIGR01122 (HMM): branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase
TIGR01123 (HMM): branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase
GO:0009098: leucine biosynthetic process
GO:0009098: leucine biosynthetic process

Parent Properties
GenProp0126amino acid biosynthesis

Sibling Properties
GenProp0001chorismate biosynthesis via shikimate
GenProp0016selenocysteine system
GenProp0037tryptophan biosynthesis from ribose-5-phosphate
GenProp0039phenylalanine biosynthesis from chorismate
GenProp0045tyrosine biosynthesis from chorismate
GenProp0087arginine biosynthesis from glutatmate via N-acetylglutamate
GenProp0109histidine biosynthesis from ribose-5-phosphate
GenProp0111proline biosynthesis from glutamate
GenProp0117arginine biosynthesis from ornithine, carbamoyl-p and aspartate
GenProp0118ornithine biosynthesis from glutamate, acetylated branch
GenProp0159threonine biosynthesis from aspartate semialdehyde
GenProp0160aspartate semialdehyde biosynthesis from aspartate
GenProp0161methionine biosynthesis from homoserine
GenProp0162isoleucine biosynthesis from threonine and pyruvate
GenProp0163valine biosynthesis from pyruvate
GenProp0178glycine cleavage system
GenProp0199lysine biosynthesis
GenProp0304cysteine biosynthesis, tRNA-dependent
GenProp0305cysteine biosynthesis
GenProp0729methionine salvage from methylthioadenosine
GenProp0797selenocysteinyl-tRNA, PSTK/SepSecS pathway