Genome Property Definition Page

Nameglycine betaine biosynthesis from choline
DescriptionAs a coping mechanism against osmotic stress, prokaryotic organisms accumulate osmolytes or osmoprotectants from exogenous sources, to counterbalance elevated osmolarities in the environment without affecting overall cell metabolism and structural integrity [1]. One of the most efficient osmoprotectants found in the environment is the compound glycine betaine [1]. Both gram positive and gram negative bacteria mediate osmotolerance either by direct uptake of glycine betaine from the environment, or by synthesis from exogenously supplied choline [2,3]. This property reflects the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from choline [4,5]. Biosynthesis of glycine betaine occurs via a two-step oxidative reaction requiring a terminal electron acceptor [2,3]. Choline dehydrogenase first catalyzes the conversion of exogenously supplied choline into the intermediate glycine betaine aldehyde, with subsequent oxidization by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase into the osmoprotectant glycine betaine [2,3]. Both choline dehydrogenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase are required for conversion of choline into glycine betaine [2,3].
JCVI RoleAdaptations to atypical conditions
Parent PropertyGenProp0267: osmolyte biosynthesis
Literature References
[ 1 ]Csonka LN, Hanson AD.  Prokaryotic osmoregulation: genetics and physiology.  Annu Rev Microbiol. 1991;45:569-606.  PMID 1741624
[ 2 ]Andresen PA, Kaasen I, Styrvold OB, Boulnois G, Strom AR  Molecular cloning, physical mapping and expression of the bet genes governing the osmoregulatory choline-glycine betaine pathway of Escherichia coli  J Gen Microbiol. 1988 Jun;134 ( Pt 6):1737-46.  PMID 3065456
[ 3 ]Boch J, Kempf B, Schmid R, Bremer E.  Synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine in Bacillus subtilis: characterization of the gbsAB genes.  J Bacteriol. 1996 Sep;178(17):5121-9.  PMID 8752328
Web ReferencesThe Ecocyc Database: betaine biosynthesis I
KEGG: Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
Gene Ontology TermGO:0019285: glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline (biological_process)

Step NameStep NumRequiredEvidence (Method)Evidence Go Terms
choline dehydrogenase1_BetAYESTIGR01810 (HMM): choline dehydrogenaseGO:0019285: glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline
glycine betaine dehydrogenase2_BetBYESTIGR01804 (HMM): betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenaseGO:0019285: glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline
choline-responsive transcriptional repressor BetIBetINOTIGR03384 (HMM): transcriptional repressor BetIGO:0019285: glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline

Parent Properties
GenProp0267osmolyte biosynthesis

Sibling Properties
GenProp0264glucosylglycerol biosynthesis
GenProp0265trehalose biosynthesis, OtsAB pathway
GenProp0266trehalose biosynthesis, TreYZ pathway
GenProp0268ectoine biosynthesis
GenProp0281mannosylglycerate biosynthesis
GenProp0878N(epsilon)-acetyl-beta-lysine biosynthesis
GenProp1070beta-glutamate biosynthesis